Jackson City was established November 28, 1821, and named in honor of Andrew Jackson, the hero of New Orleans. A road from Vicksburg to that point was completed about the same time, and this faint gleam of civilization was first shed on that section of the Pearl River wilderness. It was the same road over which Jackson was carried in triumph in 1840 to a capital of a state whose people aided him a quarter of a century before in opposing British occupation. Jackson lies on the western bank of the Pearl river, a beautiful stream flowing into the gulf of Mexico, navigable for small boats above and below the city for eight months in the year, and furnishing at all times a never failing and abundant supply of the purest water. Being situated about the geographical center of the state it was naturally made the capital city. It is also one of the county sites of Hinds County, one of the most fertile and productive counties in the state, being second only to the best delta lands in cotton production. The advantages of Jackson are not factitious; they are natural, real and permanent, and are unaided by any adventitious circumstances, auguring it a prominence and prosperity which cannot be forced down. Jackson has never been boomed as some towns are; it has never been pushed forward by any aggregated or concerted efforts of its citizens; such things, so far, are unknown to it. Its growth and development are but the nominal results of the natural course of events, and it may be truthfully said that in spite of itself nature has made it what it is; a prosperous and growing city of over six thousand inhabitants, with a brilliant and promising future of illimitable possibilities. The advantages of the place cannot be overestimated; and in considering what it is to-day it must be remembered that Jackson is a city which was practically destroyed by and rebuilt since the war. The Jackson of to-day is to all intents and purposes a city dating from the surrender, and it has attained its present importance in spite of certain obstacles, now removed, which would have forever prostrated any less favored locality. No town in the state suffered by the war as Jackson did. It was subjected to the ravages of a friendly as well as hostile army. And during the tedious years of reconstruction which followed, the city, more than any in the state, felt the depressing blight of unsettled political affairs. All this is now happily a thing of the past. A new era has been entered upon; nature has again asserted itself, and Jack-son is marching to the front steadily and surely.

The population in 1870, was four thousand two hundred and thirty-four; in 1880, live thousand two hundred and four; and in 1890, six thousand and forty-one. The editor of the Clarion-Ledger, speaking of her progress under date May 11, 1891, says: “It is usually admitted that no town of its size in Mississippi equals it in its industrial life or the general hospitality of its citizens. Far and wide it is noted for its push, and the late census shows a marked progress in every branch of industry, as well as a large increase in population. In 1880 the census gave the population of the town at live thousand, while she today boasts of nine thousand.” Under date October 21, 1891, the same paper says: “The census of 1890 may be a true and correct estimate of the population of Jackson, but the Clarion-Ledger does not believe it, and the people do not believe it. And, another thing, Jackson has a populous suburb that is, in point of fact, a part and parcel of the city. Mercerville and West End are as much a portion of Jackson as if they were located within the sacred precincts of the corporation line. ‘ Several of the leading and most substantial business men of the city have hand-some residences and valuable lots in that suburb, and by right should be included not only in the census of Jackson, but on the city assessment rolls, and pay their quota of the expenses. The board of trade could not turn its attention to a more important matter than the annexation of that part of Jackson known as West End or Mercerville. The corporation line should be extended one mile on the other side of the depot. At present it is not a quarter beyond the railroad, and thus some of the most valuable properties of the city escape city taxes and at the same time enjoy the many privileges and conveniences of city life. It is only a matter of time when the annexation will be made, and why not now? The board of trade should move in the matter. Let it be one of the subjects for discussion at the next meeting, and a committee appointed to properly lay the subject before the legislature in January next. Jackson has now a population of ten thousand or more, and is increasing at the rate of live hundred per annum. The fact of the business is Jackson is a prosperous and growing city in point of size, business and numbers. ”

The acts relating to the incorporation of Jackson are those of December 25, 1833, February 14, 1839, and February 22, 1840. On March 5, 1846, the act authorizing a bridge over Pearl River was approved; in 1846 acts relating to schools; in 1846, also, one providing for the forfeiture of vote in the case of the non-payment of street tax, and in 1848 one extending the limits and one regulating bridge affairs. The city records, prior to 1854, could not be found, but from unofficial documents it is learned that John P. Oldham was mayor for nine years prior to that date and that Joseph Spengler served as a member of the old council.

The mayors of the city since 1854 are named as follows:
Richard Fletcher*, 1854;
William H. Taylor, 1855-7;
James H. Boyd*, 1858;
W. A. Purdon,* 1859;
R. O. Kerr, 1860-1;
C. H. Manship, 1862-3;
D, N. Barrows, 1864 to May, 1868, (removed by military authorities);
Thomas H. Norton, from May 8, 1868, to July 9, 1868, (removed by military authorities);
James Biddle, from July 9, to July 31, 1868, (removed by military authorities);
James P. Sessions*, from July 31, 1868, to January 12, 1869, (removed by military authorities);
Rhesa Hatcher*, from January 12, 1869, to April 2, 1869, (removed by military authorities);
Joseph G. Crane* from April 2, 1869, to June 8, 1869, (killed);
F. A. Field, from June 16, to July 16, 1869, (removed by military authorities);
A. W. Kelly, from July 16 to November 5, 1869, (removed by military authorities);
E, W. Cabaniss*, from November 9, 1869, to June 22, 1870, when Governor Alcorn appointed Oliver Clifton. The latter resigned October 17, 1871, and ten days later Rhesa Hatcher* was appointed and served until January 3, 1872, when the days of appointments passed away and Marion Smith was elected mayor;
John McGill was elected January 5, 1874, and served until January, 1888, when the present mayor, William Henry, was elected.
*Deceased.

The aldermen in 1854 were
C. R. Dickson*
C. A. Moore*
Stephen P. Bailey*
R. M. Hobson*
W. D. Bibb* and J. W. Shaw*.
Bailey* was reelected in 1855-6 and 7
E. M. Avery*, 1855-6
W. H. Donnell*, 1855-7 and 1862
Rhesa Hatcher*, 1855-6 and 1870-1
W. W. Langley*, 1855-6
James T. Rucks,*, 1855-6 and 1858
O. Barrett* 1857
L. V. Dixon* 1857
Thomas Green* 1857-67
Hiram Hilzheim* 1857 and 1871
Jo. Bell*, 1858-60-2
C. H. Manship, 1858-9-60
D. N. Barrows, 1858-9-62-3
W. M. Estelle*, 1858-9-60
T. W. Caskey, 1858
L. Julienne* 1859-60
C. A. Moore* 1859-60
H. Spengler, 1859 and 1876-84
J. H. Bowman, 1860
M. W. Boyd* 1861
W. M. Patton* 1861
C. S. Knapp* 1861
J. O. Stevens, 1861-6
M. C. Russell* 1861
John H. Echols* 1861
G. H. Sutherland*, 1862-3
J. H. Boyd*, 1862-7
R. M. Hobson*, 1862-3
R. O. Edwards*, 1863
W. W. Hardy, 1863
J. W. K. Lucy* 1864, (killed by Deputy United States Marshal Winders)
A. Virden, 1864-9
Samuel French, 1864
M. McLaughlin* 1864-73
Ned Farish, 1864
James Tapley*, 1865-9
John Nelson*, 1865-7 and 72
Angelo Miazza* 1867-70 and 1872-3
Marcus Hilzheim*, 1867-9
Rufus Arnold, 1867-9 (appointed by military authorities to fill vacancy, October 8, 1867)
Thomas Green*, and John Nelson*, (resigned October 4, 1867)
John Burns* 1869-70
E. Bloom, 1869
Charles Williams, 1869-70
Thomas Palmer, 1869-70
James Lynch* 1869-71.
The five last named were appointed May 15, 1869, by the military authorities vice Virden, Tapley, McLaughlin, Arnold and Hilzheim, removed, and served until March 28, 1870, when Samuel Lemly*, Henry Musgrove*, E. A. Peyton*, James Lynch* (colored) and G. Richards* were appointed by Governor Alcorn. Musgrove, Peyton and Lynch served in the council in 1871, with R. Hatcher and M. McLaughlin, the latter being appointed vice Lemly.
On July 6, 1871, the six last named councilmen were removed, when A. N. Kimball*, James Peachey, E. D. Fisher (later postmaster), James R. Yerger and T. Anderson were appointed.
In 1872 George H. Clint succeeded McLaughlin and I. Strauss succeeded Clint in June, 1872. John McGill (who took J. J. Rorhbacher’s place in February, 1873), P. O. Leary, Jacob Kausler (who took A. Miazza’ s place in June, 1872) and Harris Barksdale*, all were members of the aldermanic board.
In 1874 C. B. Smith (killed by accident), Thomas Anderson (colored), Charles Williams, D. Ward, W. Q. Lowd and M. Stamps (colored) were members. Messrs. Anderson, Lowd, Ward and Williams were reelected in 1876 and H. Spengler and L. Kavanaugh* elected.
In 1878 Spengler, Williams, Lowd and Anderson, with J. S. Hamilton and J. W. Harrington*, were aldermen.
In 1880 S. E. Virden replaced Hamilton, and J. W. Clingan took the place of Harrington, the other members being reelected.
The elections of 1882 resulted in the choice of H. Spengler, J. S. Hamilton, F. B. Hull, W. Q. Lowd, W. H. Taylor and Ben Jones. The two last named were reelected in 1884, with E. Watkins, W. H. Gibbs, J. Braun and H. K. Hardy.
In 1886 W. S. Lemly took the place of Gibbs and the other members were reelected. E. Watkins, W. S. Lemly and W. H. Taylor, with L. F. Chiles, H. M. Taylor and George Lemon, were elected in 1888, and in 1890 Messrs. Chiles, Lemon and H. M. Taylor, with B. W. Griffith, E. Von Seutter, L. Manship and James Ewing, formed the board of aldermen.
*Deceased.

So early as February 20, 1819, congress donated one thousand two hundred and eighty acres to the state, to be selected by the legislature, and made the site of the state capital. Two years after, the legislature named Thomas Hinds, James Patton and William Lattimore commissioners to locate such capital town within twenty miles of the geographical center of Mississippi. For some reason, William Lattimore did not take part in the final action of the commissioners, for on November 28, 1821, the first and last named, with Peter A. Van Dorn, were directed expressly by the legislature to locate the capital land grant on the east half of sections three and ten, and the west half of sections two and eleven, in town five north, and range one, east of the Choctaw meridian, to name the land so selected Jackson, and to have a temporary building for legislative sessions erected thereon before December, 1822. The sale of lots in the new town was authorized June 30, 1822, and the terms of sale placed at ten per cent, cash, and the balance in three years. The particulars are given in page ninety-nine, Hutchinson’s Mississippi code. On February 26, 1833, the act for the erection of the capitol and executive mansion was approved and 1105,000 appropriated. Three years later, William Nichols was appointed state architect (office abolished in 1842), and Richard Davidson, Perry Cohea, and Henry K. Moss commissioners of public buildings. In February, 1836, the act to establish a penitentiary was approved; in 1848, that establishing the institute for the blind; in 1853 the state lunatic asylum was authorized, and in 1854 the institute for the deaf and dumb. Work on the statehouse was commenced in 1838, the contract for woodwork being entered into by E. S. Farish.

Of the pioneers of the city very few remain. David Shelton settled here in 1836; Herbert Spengler came about 1837, and in October, 1838, laid the foundation of the businesses, which he has built up within the last fifty-five years; William J. Brown, who was a printer here in 1836; Charles H. Manship, a settler of 1836, and Alexander Virden, who also came in 1836, George Langley, Edward Virden, Thomas Helm, Jacob Kausler, and John Clinghen are still residents of the city. In 1844, D. N. Barrows established an insurance office; in 1850, Isadore Strauss came; in 1850 or 1851, E. Von Seutter; in 1853, E. D. Patton; in 1855, H. BI. Taylor, and in 1858, L. Fraggiacoma. They are today among the most enterprising men of the commercial circle. Many children of the pioneers of the county and state reside at Jackson, and are found in all branches of trade and in the professions. Many of the old settlers, men and women who were here before the war, and passed through the trials of the city’s occupation by opposing armies, are now witnessing the extraordinary progress of a new city under a new idea of civilization. Some landmarks of the original town have survived time, as well as the large public buildings completed within the decade ending in 1860, and a few of the principal residences of antebellum days, but the hand of the modernizer is more manifest and architectural styles and conveniences undreamed of even twenty years ago exist od every side. The last decade, which did so much for civilization in the Northern states, has not overlooked the Southern country, and in the advance Jackson city has been foremost.

The old frame house known as the Eagle hotel, forty rooms, stood where the Brown residence now is. The brick hotel of one hundred rooms erected on this site in 1854, and known as the Bowman house, was burned during the war. George Langley, now a resident of the city, was a prime mover in urging the erection of a large hotel, and suggested the purchase and donation of the ground.

Jackson is the railroad center of the state, and one of the most important in the South. The great Illinois Central railroad, from Chicago to New Orleans, divides the state north and south, and at Jackson intersects the Vicksburg & Meridian, running east and west from Vicksburg on the Mississippi and forming a link in the chain of roads connecting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Jackson is the present terminus of the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railroad, a line operated by the Illinois Central and extending northwest from Jack-son through the world-renowned Yazoo and Mississippi delta, the most fertile and productive body of land in the world, to a point on the Mississippi river opposite Helena, Arkansas , where it connects with the Great Western and Northwestern systems of railroads. The Natchez, Jackson & Columbus railroad, with its present termini at Jackson and Natchez on the Mississippi river, runs southwest from Jackson, and will be completed beyond Jackson northeast, to the coal fields of Alabama. The Gulf & Chicago railroad, now rapidly approaching completion, will give Jackson as direct and quick connection with the Gulf of Mexico as it has now with New Orleans. A branch of the Queen & Crescent railroad from a point near the Pearl river bridge to Pearl street, in the rear of State street, was completed October 22, 1891. Jackson has now within its corporate limits between seven thousand and nine thousand inhabitants, including a large and rapidly increasing suburban population. The streets are all named and houses numbered, and a free postal delivery system is in operation. At least five hundred buildings have been completed in the last five years, and more are constantly going up. It has one of the largest cotton compresses in the world, being the same which was awarded the first premium at the World’s exposition in New Orleans. It has gas and street railways, two prosperous banks, an ice factory with a daily capacity of fifteen tons, three steam foundries and small factories of agricultural implements running to their full capacity; two large brick factories, two fertilizer factories, one furniture factory, one broom factory, ten churches, six newspapers (five weeklies and one daily), and three large hotels. Being the capital of the state, nearly all the important state institutions and buildings are located here. The State library in the capital building is the third largest state law library in the Union. The miscellaneous library, being also large and well selected, is free to the public. At Jackson are held the state supreme, chancery, and circuit courts; also the circuit and district courts of the United States. At Jackson also assemble the legislature and all the important conventions. In 1887 the Illinois Central company built at Jackson a passenger depot unsurpassed by any in the South, and early in 1891 designed a grander building for this important railroad center.

The Jackson Land and Improvement Company, organized in 1886-7, is a joint stock company, gotten up exclusively on home capital, and has for its object the advancement and general improvement of the material interests of the city. It is composed of gentlemen of standing and respectability. Its charter gives it full power to conduct and operate all branches of business which will tend to increase the comfort and business prosperity of the city. This company now owns the most desirable suburban property to be found near Jackson, lying just in the path of its present growth. This land is divided into lots and offered as cheap homes for persons desiring to locate permanently here. One of the main objects of the company, by means of co-operation, is to make known to the outside world the many substantial attractions of their city; to correspond with outside capitalists seeking investments, and to show to them the many reasons why Jackson is the most desirable and eligible place in the state or the South for the establishment of any and all kinds of industries which manufacture wood or cotton or wool. Few places can show such inducements in these lines as these offers, with its rivers and railroads and cheap and accessible adjacent forests abounding in the finest lumber of multiplied varieties, in addition to being in the very center of the largest cotton-producing state.

The educational advantages of Jackson, for both sexes and all colors, are excellent,

There is also a first-class commercial college here, a convent school and classical schools. The churches are well administered and exert a most beneficent influence upon the people of the city.

The secret and benevolent societies are thoroughly organized, while social and literary associations attain a rare excellence. The newspapers of the city, past and present, are referred to in other pages.

The Capital State bank is the oldest bank in Jackson. It was founded by Col. Thos. E. Helm, in 1872-3, the reorganization taking place in January, 1888, with the following officers: R. W. Millsaps, president; Thos. E. Helm, vice president; B. W. Griffith, cashier, and E. M. Parker, assistant cashier. The directors are: R. W. Millsaps, Thos. E. Helm, C. A. Alexander, E. Virden and I. Strauss, of Jackson, Walter Heilman, of Clinton, and W. H. Tribette, of Terry, all of whom are gentlemen of the highest financial, commercial and social standing in this state. The bank operates with a capital of $100,000, and has a surplus and undivided profits amounting to $15,733.00 additional.

The First National bank was established May 1st, 1885. Its capital is $100,000, to which has been added a surplus of $30,000. The officers are: Samuel S. Carter, president; Charles A. Lyerly, vice president; O. J. White, cashier, and A. C. Jones, assistant cashier. These are also directors, together with E. L. Saunders, Byron Lemly, S. S. Calhoon, P. W. Peoples and C. W. Robinson. These names will be recognized as being borne by the most substantial men of central Mississippi.

The Jackson bank was organized December 19, 1889, with a cash capital of $100,000; the officers are: P. W. Peeples, president; R. L. Saunders, vice president; A. M. Nelson, cashier; J. W. Cooper, assistant cashier, and directors P. W. Peeples, John McDonnell, G. Y. Freeman, W. W. Stone, W. J. Davis, R. Griffith, E. H. Anderson, R. L. Saunders, J. B. Ross, Wirt Adams and A. M. Nelson.

State Building and Loan association was organized April 22, 1890, but incorporated February 2lBt of that year, with an authorized capital stock of $3,000,000. The following well-known citizens of Mississippi form the directory: J. M. Lambert, Natchez, Geo. M. Govan, McComb City; R. K. Jayne, Jackson; D. D. Boyd, Jackson; T. M. Miller, Vicksburg; A. H. Jayne, Jackson; A. B. Watts, Meridian; John H. Odeneal, Jackson; J. M. Lambert, president; Geo. M. Govan, vice president, R. K. Jayne, secretary and D. D. Boyd, trustee; T. M. Miller and A. H. Jayne, general attorneys; John H. Odeneal and A. B. Watts, inspectors.

One of the most valuable improvements is the water system, completed in 1889. The water works are owned by the Light, Heat & Water company, of which R. L. Saunders is president, P. W. Peeples vice president and M. Green secretary and treasurer, who are also directors, together with C. W. Robinson, S. S. Carter, R. W. Millsaps, S. S. Calhoon and B. Lemly, all business men and capitalists of the city. The cap-ital stock is $100,000. The system employed is gravity pressure for domestic and direct pressure for fire service. A steel stand pipe one hundred and twenty feet in height, twenty-four feet in diameter, with a capacity of two hundred and eighty thousand gallons, has been constructed upon a hill about one and one-half miles from the city limits, the elevation being seventy-three feet above the ground where the capitol stands. The water is obtained from Pearl River, some three miles above the city, and also the same distance along mains. The pumping plant consists of two duplex double-acting Deane steam pumps, one compound and one high pressure, each having a daily capacity of one million gallons. The boilers are of steel, fifty-four inches in diameter. The pumps are set in a circular well, twenty-one feet deep, the lift from low water being eleven feet. The pump house is built of brick, and of sufficient size to admit of the doubling of the capacity at any time. The plant is entirely above the high water mark and five hundred feet above low water. In addition to the direct suction, an independent suction admits water being taken from a well excavated near the pump house for filtering purposes. The stand pipe is one and one-quarter miles from the pumps and one hundred and twenty feet above them; an electrical call, by which the engineer can turn the water oil from the stand pipe and apply direct pressure in case of fire, is a part of the apparatus. The mains range from twelve to four inches in diameter, and eight miles are laid within and three without the city limits for supplying the various state institutions, which require twenty-one hydrants in addition to the number required by the city. These works have been constructed in the most thorough and systematic manner by Moffitt, Hodgkins & Clarke of Watertown, N. Y., while all the material and machinery used are of the very best, latest and most highly improved patterns. The gas works preceded the water works, and even the electric light was introduced before the boon of a good water supply was given.

The Mississippi Compress & Warehouse company owns and operates one of the largest and finest cotton compresses in the entire South, its plant representing an outlay of fully $60,000. The press is a ninety-inch Morse, the same which was on exhibition at the exposition in New Orleans, where it carried off all the honors. The press, warehouses, platforms, sheds, etc., cover an area of five acres, having storage capacity of ten thousand bales, located upon the tracks of the different railways entering Jackson, having a frontage on the Illinois Central railroad of three hundred feet, and on the Vickburg & Meridian railroad of two hundred feet. Every facility and all late improvements have been added and exist for the rapid and effective work required in this business, and the press has a record of loading one hundred compressed bales into one oar.

The Capital City Oil works were built in the summer of 1889, and commenced operation in the fall of the same year. The following citizens are the officers: John A. Lewis, president; E. T. George, secretary and treasurer; John W. Todd, general agent. Since the date of the establishment of this concern its volume of business has grown to an immense degree and to-day it takes front rank with all similar industries. It is located in West Jackson on a plat of ground covering about five acres. There are three distinct buildings: The mill, which is built of brick, 270×40 feet; the seed house, 400×50 feet; and the office building, a handsome two-story brick house. The engine room is 50×60 feet, and the boiler room, 40×50 feet. Two switches of the Illinois Central and one of the Little J run through the yards, thus furnishing excellent shipping facilities. The mill is fitted throughout with most im-proved machinery, and contains eight (Buckeye) presses, with a capacity of crushing seventy-five tons of seed per day. The company have their own dynamo, and during the busy season, when they are compelled to run both night and day, furnish lighting material. The oil manufactured is sent to the North, where it goes through a process of refining.

A number of manufacturing industries, such as the Enoch’s Lumber and Manufacturing company, the sawmills, planing mills, foundries, etc. , are in operation, each one worked to its full capacity.

The mercantile houses are large, prosperous concerns, always telling of business principles in their conduct, and in the manners of merchants and employees.

The cotton market of the city is, of course, an interesting point, as it is in all such Southern cities.

The board of trade was chartered April 18, 1888, the following named being among its
first officers: Dr. P. W. Peeples, president; Maj. E. W. Millsaps, first vice president; E. Virden, second vice president; A. Virden, Jr., secretary; and Dr. S. S. Carter, treasurer. The board of directors is made up as follows: E. W. Millsaps, J. A. Shingleur, E. L. Saunders, Dr. B. Lemly, Isadore Strauss, John McDonnell and J. H. Odeneal.

The Edwards house, the Lawrence and the Spengler are the principal hotels of the city. The first named is one of great old houses of the state, speaking of days before its institutions were overturned by war. A modern brick addition and interior decoration bring it into harmony with the present. The Lawrence house, established in 1858, is undoubtedly the leading commercial hotel of central Mississippi. The owner established himself at Jackson in 1858, served with the Confederate troops during the war, and resuming the business raised the business of hotel keeping to a profession. The addition to the house was completed in 1890. The Spengler house, opposite the capitol, occupies one of the finest business sites in the city. Removed from the railroad depot, it is on the borders of the principal business and residence districts. The improvements completed in January, 1891, including the important brick addition, render it a modern house. The owners are among the pioneers of Jackson, and connected closely with the building of the city. The large hotel at Cooper’s well, three and one-half miles from Raymond, is the property of the Spenglers. Mrs. T. B. J. Hadley, a daughter of the Indian fighter, David Smith, after whom Smith County was named, and the wife of Auditor Hadley, of Wilkinson County, kept the leading boardinghouse at Jackson in 1837. She was a great admirer of the Indian law’s providing for the protection of married women’s property, and was instrumental in urging the adoption of such a law by Mississippi.

The capitol, governor’s residence, city hall, deaf and dumb institute. Federal building, state school for the blind, insane asylum and state penitentiary are the public buildings of the city. The four first named buildings show adherence to definite architectural forms, the Federal building is an adaptation of the Palladian, and the penitentiary building a mixture of the Tudor and Colonial, with the finer parts of each style ignored. The church buildings are Gothic, the Illinois Central depot Queen Anne, and the modern residences partake, in a measure, of the last-mentioned style, or are decidedly French of the suburban type.

Throughout the city brick or wooden sidewalks and macadamized streets prevail, street cars traverse the principal streets, gas or electricity lights up the thoroughfares, and the water system extends through every ward. In the residence portion the parkways, while not as wide as they should be, are well kept, but to large grounds surrounding each residence credit must be given for being faultless in the arrangement of shrubbery and lawn. It is a garden city, boasting of all the light and air of the country and all the advantages of a modern city.

At the meeting of the board of trade October 20, 1891, several topics of practical inter-est to the city were considered. Dr. Peeples, as chairman of a committee, reported some progress in the matter of securing the arrival of morning trains on the Little J and Yazoo branch roads. He called attention to what was manifestly a discrimination against Jackson in the matter of rates on cotton from Flora to Jackson and from same point to Yazoo City. Flora is nearer Jackson than Yazoo City, and yet the freight is seventy-five cents to Jackson, and only forty cents to Yazoo City. A member suggested that perhaps the Illinois Central owned or had an interest in the Yazoo City Compress. The committee was continued to press the matter of morning trains, and to interview the railroad commission, if necessary, for removal of the discrimination stated. General Henry reported that 1500 in cash had been subscribed for the repair of the turnpike, and that contracts would be let on Saturday next.

The matter of incessant switching at and near the railroad junction, the delays to vehicles and persons desiring to cross the numerous tracks, the danger to life, and the accidents occurring, was a subject of earnest and protracted conversation. Mr. Montgomery said the railroad people were anxious to provide a remedy, but it could only be done by removal of freight depots out of town, which would result in great inconvenience to the business community. The opening of more streets from East to West Jackson, above and below the city, it was suggested, would solve the problem. Mr. Odeneal thought a bridge over the Capitol street crossing would be a great relief, that it was now very dangerous for school children to cross the track, and that wagons were provokingly delayed in coming to and going from town. Colonel Power suggested that the school population of West Jackson seemed to require a public school building in that part of the city, and that the children over there should not be subjected to the dangers mentioned by Mr. Odeneal. General Henry remarked that the necessity for a West End school was becoming very apparent. The removal of the penitentiary was the special topic of discussion. Colonel Hooker, Captain Stone, Colonel Hamilton, Dr. Peeples and Major Millsaps all spoke earnestly in that behalf, and finally it was ordered that the president of the board should, at his convenience, appoint a committee of nine to prepare a memorial to the legislature urging the early removal of the prison, which was a continual men-ace to the health, and an obstacle to the growth of the city. Dr. P. W. Peeples, chairman; W. W. Stone, J. L. Power, B. W. Griffith, Oliver Clifton, R. L. Saunders, John McDonnell, M. Green, L. F. Chiles, R. W. Millsaps, were appointed a committee to wait upon the legislature to urge the removal of the penitentiary from the city limits.

The following brief city directory of Jackson’s municipal, fraternal, judicial, religious and other interests was compiled in October, 1891:

William Henry, mayor; W. R. Harper, police justice; J. B. Harris, city attorney; John T. Buck, city clerk and collector; Isadore Strauss, treasurer; A. G. Lewis, chief of police; Henry Taylor, white sexton; Alex. Wilson, colored sexton.

Aldermen North ward, B. W. Griffith, Luther Manship; South ward, H. M. Taylor, L. F. Chiles; West ward, George Lemon, James Ewing. Regular meetings of the board on Wednesday after first Tuesday each month.

Fraternal societies Pearl Masonic lodge No. 23, first Saturday night each month;
Jackson Royal Arch chapter No. 6, fourth Monday night each month;
Mississippi Commandery No. 1, Knights Templar, second Monday night each month; Capitol lodge No. 11, I. O. O. F. , every Thursday night;
Central lodge No. 764, K. of H., first and third Tuesday nights in each month;
Jackson lodge No. 163, K. and L. of H., every third Monday;
Pearl lodge No. 23, Knights of Pythias, second and fourth Tuesday nights in each month;
Manassah lodge No. 202, I. O. O. B., second and fourth Sundays, 10 a. m., in lodge room. Temple basement;
Capitol lodge No. 11, A. O. of U. W., first and third Monday nights in each month; United Brotherhood of Carpenters and Joiners of America meets every Friday night, at 7:80, in Richardson building. West Jackson;
Capitol Light guards, regular meetings first Thursdays, regular drill every Monday night.

The firemen Jackson Fire department, L. B. Moseley president, Oliver Clifton chief; Jackson No. 1, first Monday night in each month; West Jackson No. 1, second Tuesday night in each month; Gem No. 2, second Tuesday night in each month; Pearl Hook and Ladder No. 1, first Thursday night in each month; Hope No. 3, second Tuesday night in each month.

Supreme Court J. A. P. Campbell, chief justice. Third district; Thomas H. Woods, associate justice. Second district; T. E. Cooper, associate justice, Fourth district; Oliver Clifton, clerk. Semi-annual terms commence on third Monday of October and first Monday of April.

United States court Circuit and chancery courts, first Monday in May and November, Henry C. Niles, judge; R. H. Winter, clerk; F. H. Collins, marshal.

Circuit court, Hinds county First district, Jackson, first Monday in January and June (eighteen days); Second district, Raymond, fourth Monday in January and June (twelve days). J. B. Chrisman, judge; W. H. Potter, clerk; R. J. Harding, sheriff.

Chancery court. Hinds county First district, Jackson, first Monday in March and October (twelve days); Second district, Raymond, third Monday in February and September (twelve days). H. C. Conn, chancellor; W, W. Downing, clerk.

Hinds County supervisors Meetings on first Monday in each month, alternately at Raymond and Jackson. In Raymond, January, March, May, July, September and November; Jackson, February, April, June, August, October and December. W. W. Downing, clerk, office in Raymond; Ramsey Wharton, deputy, office in Jackson.

The churches West Jackson Methodist, B. F. Lewis, pastor; preaching 11 a. m. and 8 p. M.; Sunday school 9:30 a. m.; J. T. H. Laird, superintendent; prayer-meeting Thursday, 8 p. M.
Baptist church, H. F. Sproles, pastor; preaching 11 a. m. and 7:30 p. m.; Sunday-school 9:30 A. M.; B. W. Griffith, superintendent; prayer meeting Wednesday, 7:30 p. m. Presbyterian church, John Hunter, pastor; preaching 11 a. m. and 7:30 p. m.; Sunday school 9 A. M.; W. S. Lemly, superintendent; prayer-meeting Wednesday night, 7:30; West Jackson Sunday school 9 a. m. , Dr. B. H. Cully, superintendent.
Methodist church, Rev. W. C. Black, D. D. , pastor; preaching every Sabbath at 11 a. m. and 7:30 p. m.; prayer-meeting Wednesday night at 7:30; Sabbath-school 9:30 a. m., W. L. Nugent, superintendent.
St. Peter’s Catholic church, Rev. Louis A. Dutto, pastor; services every Sunday; early mass 7:00 a. m.; high mass, 10 a. m.; vespers 4 p. m.
Episcopal (St. Andrew’s) church, Sunday service 11 a. m. and 7 p. m.; Sunday school 9:30 a. m., M. Green, superintendent.
Christian church, M. F. Harmon, pastor; preaching every Sunday, 10:45 a. m. and 7:15 p. m.; Sunday school 9:30 a. m.
Beth Israel congregation, no pastor at present; services every Friday night at 7:30, conducted by laymen.

The monument erected at Jackson to perpetuate the memory of those who gave their lives to the Southern cause during the Civil war was unveiled June 4, 1891, with appropriate ceremonies in the presence of twenty thousand people. It stands in the southern portion of the capitol enclosure, on grounds donated by the legislature for the purpose, in full view of the principal street of the city.

The height of the monument from the ground line to the soldier on top is sixty feet and four inches. It stands upon a solid concrete foundation twenty- four feet square and two feet and eight inches thick. The base of the monument at Jackson, Miss., is almost a duplicate in miniature of the temple at Pandrethan. The three platform stone bases are built of white limestone from the quarries at Bowling Green, Ky. Each is eight inches thick and the lower is twenty-four feet long by twenty feet wide. On the outside of these bases there is a granolithic stone pavement four feet wide, extending entirely around the monument. The die resting on these stone bases represents the wall of an old castle, and is thirteen feet high by fourteen feet wide. The walls above the receding buttresses or plinths are equally divided and cut up into seventy-four blocks. It was originally intended to have each of these blocks represent one of the seventy-four counties of the state (the number in the state at that time) with the name of the county chiseled thereon and number of soldiers it furnished the Confederacy. This, however, for the present has been, abandoned and the blocks are perfectly plain. On the north and south sides of the die there is an inscription on raised marble, extending two-thirds across the monument, containing these words: ” To the Confederate Dead of Mississippi.” On the west and east sides are the doorways, about seven feet high and two feet and eight inches in width. They are ornamented by beautiful and heavily molded door jams, extending to the sides and tops of the openings and resting .upon ornamental scroll buttresses. Curving to the outside and securely fastened to the door jams are heavy vault doors of malleable galvanized iron. The pattern of this is scroll and flower work. There are no bars. “Each of the doors is provided with locks, so that the vaulted chamber containing Jefferson Davis’ statue and the inscriptions can be secured from intrusion. Each of these doorways is further ornamented and protected by an arched portico, projecting five feet from the face of the die and about ten feet high. Each of these arched canopies of the portico is supported by two highly polished red beech granite columns. Crowning the arch of these appears the monogram, C. S. A. (Confederate States of America), raised in heavy bold letters and gilded. They form the approach to the vault, immediately in the center of the monument. The vault is octagonal in shape and has a red and white marble floor, seven feet two inches in diameter. In the center is the corner or more appropriately speaking the center stone, which was laid with imposing Masonic ceremonies three years ago. This stone is of Italian marble, beautifully polished, and projects six inches above the floor. Resting upon this as a pedestal is to stand the life-sized statue of Jefferson Davis, president of the Confederacy. This piece of work was executed by one of the finest artists in Italy, and represents Mr. Davis standing with left hand extended in the attitude of delivering a speech. In his right hand he has a roll of manuscript and at his feet lays a pile of books. The sides of this chamber are wainscoted with Italian marble six feet in height. Including the doors there are eight sides to the chamber, the doors forming two sides. On the six marble slabs there are engraved the following inscriptions in beautifully gilded letters.

Officers of the Confederate Monument association of Mississippi, A. D., 1890: Miss Sallie B. Mor gan, president; Mrs. Belmont Phelps Manship, vice-president; Mrs. Elenor H. Stone, treasurer; Miss Sophie D. Langley, secretary; Mrs. Virginia P. McKay, corresponding secretary.

“All lost! but by the grave
“Where martyred heroes rest,
He wins the most who honor saves
Success is not the test.”

“It recks not where their bodies lie.
By bloody hillside, plain, or river;
Their names are bright on fame’s proud sky;
Their deeds of valor live forever.”

The noble women of Mississippi, moved by grateful hearts and loving zeal, organized June 15, A. D. 1886, the Confederate Monument association; their efforts, aided by an appropriation of the state of Missis-sippi, were crowned with success in the erection of this monument to the Confederate dead of Mississippi, in the year 1891.

The men to whom this monument is dedicated were the martyrs of their creed; their justification is in the holy keeping of the God of history.

God and our consciences alone
Give us measures of right and wrong.
The race may fall unto the swift
And the battle to the strong;
But the truth will shine in history
And blossom into song.

From the top of the marble slabs springs a balled arch canopy to the height of nine feet six inches, making an octagonal arch chamber. Among the battlements of the die arise the bases of the plinth of the spire, of which the plinth proper is the most attractive, being seven feet square and nine feet high. Four Egyptian columns on the corners support the marble entablatures, on which are cut in bold relief on the west side the eagle and coat of arms of Mississippi; on the north side a piece of artillery with Confederate flags; on the east side crossed cavalry sabers and belts; on the south side crossed Enfield rifles within a shield on which is inscribed: “Mississippi Volunteers.'” Above the plinth starts the spire, which is three feet and eight inches square at the bottom, tapering gradually to two feet square on the top, the shaft proper being thirty feet high. The top of the shaft is surmounted with a statue of a Confederate soldier, his feet and the butt of his gun being in the position of parade rest, his head depressed and his left arm resting on the muzzle of his gun in an easy and graceful position. The statue is six feet and ten inches high and was sculptured at the monument by J. T. Whitehead, from a rough block of Italian marble. Excepting the material mentioned, the monument is built of calcareous limestone from Bedford, Ind.

The first public suggestion for the monument was made by Mrs. Luther Manship, of Jackson. So that the scheme may be said to have originated and culminated at the capital. In the spring of 1886 there appeared in the Clarion an article announcing a concert to be given by Mr. and Mrs. Luther Manship to raise a nucleus fund for this purpose. In the next issue a delicate and beautiful appeal to patriotism and Confederate memories from the pen of the young and gifted Charles Hooker attracted the attention of the ladies of the commonwealth to the holy cause. The united press came to their aid with everything beautiful in poesy, song and prose. Friday, May 28, 1886, the concert was announced, the following being the program:

Part First

Piano Accompaniment, Miss Florence Bowmar, Mrs. A. L. Julienne, and Prof. Doe.
Selection, Gem Band.
Sound of Harps, Chorus.
Our National Banner, Recitation.

Willie Nugent.
Address, Col. C. E. Hooker.
Conquered Banner, by Father Ryan Luther Manship.
The Spell, Solo Lurine.
Miss Bessie Claris.
After the Battle, Recitation.
Mrs. Luther Manship.
Erin on the Rhine, Solo.
Mr. Oram.
Ernanl, Solo.
Mrs. Bella McLeod Smith.

Part Second
Come Rise with the Lark, Quartette.
Messrs. Julienne, Doerr, Zehnder and Ligon.
Bird Prom O’er the Sea, Solo.
Miss Lyda Terrell.
Selected, Prof. Borneman.

Miss Hulda’s Offer, Miss Annie Manship.
See the Pale Moon, Duet.
Misses Wolfe.
The Dutch Volunteer, Luther Manship.
Tantum Ergo, Duo.
Mrs. Smith and Prof. Borneman.
Suwanee River, Chorus.
Misses Langley, Wolfe, Manship, Fletcher, Clarice, Mrs. Julienne, and Messrs. Julienne, Ligon, Oram, Skellenger, Zehnder, Schulze and Manship.

A small fund was the result, and thus the monument was inaugurated. The 16th of June following, responding to a call of Miss Sophie Langley, nine ladies met in the senate chamber and organized the Confederate Monument association. They were Mrs. Luther Manship, Miss Sophie Langley, Mrs. A. L. Brunson, Mrs. V. P. McKay, Miss Mary Andrews, Miss Jennie Fontaine, Miss Rebecca Smith, Miss Mary Lou Langley, Miss Mary Belle Morgan, Miss Sallie B. Morgan. The last named lady was called to the chair, and an organization was effected, pledging themselves to work for the cause. Mrs. C. E. Hooker, though not present, was elected president, afterward declining for satisfactory reasons. Mrs. A. L. Brunson was vice president; Mrs. Manship, corresponding secretary; Miss Sophie Langley, assistant corresponding secretary. Miss Fontaine, then a girl scarcely fourteen, was made local secretary, and held the place with assiduity and energy until her removal from Jackson, after most of the work was accomplished. Miss Anderson was treasurer of the association, which she held also until her parents moved from Jackson.

Moving on without a president, the association gained strength and membership, reorganizing in the fall of 1886 under a charter prepared by Capt. D. P. Porter. February 24, 1887, Mrs. Manship resigned the office of corresponding secretary and was elected president, and at the same meeting Mrs. W. W. Stone was elected treasurer of the monument fund, which position she holds still, being reelected from term to term. At the meeting March 3, 1887, a letter of encouragement was received from Gen. Stephen D. Lee, containing a handsome contribution, the first donation to the monument. Mrs. Hooker, Mrs. Stone and Mrs. John Dunning were appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws for the government of the association. They met November 10, 1887, and adopted the constitution and by-laws as reported, and the following officers were elected: Mrs. Manship, president; Mrs. A. L. Brunson, vice president; Miss Jennie Fontaine, secretary; Mrs. V. P. McKay, corresponding secretary; Miss Sophie Langley, assistant corresponding secretary; Mrs. W. W. Stone, treasurer monumental fund, and Miss Mary Anderson, treasurer of association. Capt. D. P. Porter and Capt. W. W. Stone were made honorary members. In the annual election of 1S88 the same officers were mostly elected. Miss Kate Power becoming local treasurer, and Mrs. C. C. Campbell being chosen vice president.

The ladies struggled on in so many ways that it is impossible to go into detail. A bill to aid them was passed by the senate in 1888. It was drafted by Judge Thrasher, of Claiborne, and introduced and warmly advocated by Senator Binford; Senators Wilson, Yerger and others made speeches in its favor. The house defeated it by a small majority, Messrs. Sharp, Magruder, Watkins and Jones warmly supporting it. Finding legislative aid failing, the ladies signed a contract for a modest, but enduring monument, to be built by Mr. J. T. Whitehead, an ex-Confederate soldier. The cornerstone was laid with well- remembered Masonic ceremonies. May 25, 1888. It was not to be costly, because hope from other than little sources had failed. Mrs. C. C. Campbell, aided by Mr. Luther Manship, got up a kirmess, to which call the people of Jackson nobly responded. One thousand dollars was the result, the largest sum from any one source donated. The towns of Greenville, Green-wood and Yazoo City each gave the proceeds of an entertainment given for the purpose. Mrs. C. E. Hooker and Mrs. J. H. Dunning made an afghan that brought a considerable sum. A bazaar and restaurant at the fair, and a table conducted by Mrs. Dunning and Mrs. Brougher and Miss Rebecca Smith, on the occasion of the laying of the cornerstone, added greatly to the fund. Again Judge Thrasher drafted the bill for the ladies, asking 110,000 to complete the monument. The senate listened to the advocacy of Gen. J. H. Jones and others patiently, and with but five against the bill they sent it to the house. Those senators who opposed it did not do so for want of feeling. The house received the bill most kindly and passed it, despite some violent opposition not engendered by any bad feeling. Various were the reasons for this opposition, but none of them were for the want of a proper Con-federate feeling or an appreciation of the cause. Many donations came in small sums from the citizens and soldiers and the Confederate organizations. The contract called for an artistic and endurable work, and it has been faithfully filled.*
*Largely from the Clarion-Ledger.

Mississippi presented to the Washington monument a white marble rock, with the inscription “The State of Mississippi to the Father of his Country;” the grand Masonic lodge of Mississippi, a gray marble rock, with emblems and words inscribed; Oakland College, a coarse-grained sandstone, and the grand lodge of Odd Fellows, a gray stone with three links in bas-relief.

 

Back to: Mississippi Counties, Cities and Towns, 1891

Source: Biographical and Historical Memories of Mississippi, Goodspeed Publishing Company, 1891